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Ingaruka zo kutabarura abapfuye muri Afurika

Ibihugu umunani gusa mu bihugu birenga 50 muri Afurika ni byo bifite gahunda itegeka kwandika abapfuye, nkuko iperereza rya BBC ryabitahuye.

Ibi ntabwo ari ukunanirwa gusa kwa leta ko kumenya buri muntu wapfuye, ahubwo bifite n’ingaruka zikomeye ku igenamigambi rya guverinoma.

Ibihugu byose byo ku mugabane w’Uburayi usibye gusa bibiri muri byo – Albania na Monaco – bifite uburyo bwo kwandika abapfuye bose, ndetse no ku mugabane w’Aziya, ibihugu birenga kimwe cya kabiri bifite iyo gahunda, nkuko isesengura ry’amakuru y’umuryango w’abibumye (ONU/UN) ribigaragaza.

Ariko muri Afurika, ibihugu gusa bya Misiri, Afurika y’epfo, Tunisia, Algeria, Cape Verde, São Tomé na Príncipe, Seychelles n’ibirwa bya Mauritius (Maurice) ni byo bifite uburyo bwitwa ko bukora, bw’itegeko kandi buhuriweho n’abaturage – buzwi nka CRVS mu mpine – bwo kwandika abapfuye.

Ibihugu byose byakozweho igenzura na BBC, ifatanyije n’abashakashatsi bo mu kanama ka ONU gashinzwe iterambere ry’Afurika (UNECA), rwose bifite uburyo runaka bwo kwandika abapfuye.

Ariko, akenshi biba ari ku rupapuro gusa kandi ntibiboneka mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga rishobora gusangizwa abandi bantu. Aya makuru ashobora gukoreshwa mu karere, ariko ntashobora kubara ibijyanye n’ibihuriweho (trends) n’impfu ku rwego rw’igihugu.

Nyuma y’icyorezo cya Ebola, n’ubu muri iki gihe cy’icyorezo cya Covid-19, kugira ishusho y’ukuri y’umubare w’abarimo gupfa, ikibica n’aho bapfira, ni ingenzi iyo bigeze ku kumenya ahashyirwa ubushobozi n’inkunga.

Ibi binafite ingaruka ku kumenya uburyo bwo guhangana n’impfu z’ababyeyi b’abagore n’abana kuko hari abana bavuka ntibyandikwe banapfa muri ubwo bwana bwabo ntibyandikwe.

Ibi ntibibima gusa amahirwe yo kugira “uburenganzira ku mwirondoro”, nkuko bivugwa na William Muhwava – ukuriye ibijyanye n’abaturage mu kanama UNECA gafite icyicaro i Addis Ababa muri Ethiopia. Avuga ko binasobanuye ko nta masomo yigirwa ku byabaye mbere.

Romesh Silva, ushinzwe by’umwihariko abaturage mu ishami rya ONU ryita ku baturage (UNFPA), yabwiye BBC ati:

“Mu rwego wo gufasha abariho, ducyeneye kubara abapfuye”.

Abo bantu batabarwa mu bitabo by’abapfuye akenshi baba ari abacyene cyane ndetse barahawe akato mu muryango mugari, nkuko akomeza abivuga.

Kandi ngo ibura ry’amakuru ajyanye n’impfu zabo rivuze ko ingamba zo guhangana n’icyateye izo mpfu zabo rimwe na rimwe zidafatwa.

Irina Dincu wo mu kigo cyo mu buryo bwa CRVS bwo kubarura abapfuye, yagize ati:

“Nubwo hashowemo imari, uburyo bwa CRVS bukomeje kudakora, bigatuma za guverinoma zigendera ku makusanyabitekerezo… aya igihe atangarizwa aba yamaze kuba atakijyanye n’igihe”.

Iyo bigeze kuri coronavirus, hari impungenge ko ishusho nyayo y’uko iki cyorezo gihagaze mu bihugu bimwe itazwi mu buryo bwuzuye.

Byaratangajwe cyane ko umubare w’abicwa na Covid-19 muri Afurika uri hasi cyane ugereranyije n’uko bimeze mu bindi bice by’isi.

Ubunararibonye mu guhangana n’ibyorezo, kwihutira gufata ingamba mu bihugu bimwe, kuba abaturage b’Afurika muri rusange bagizwe n’urubyiruko ndetse no kugira ubudahangarwa buvuye mu yandi moko ya coronavirus, byose byibazwa ko ari byo byabigizemo uruhare.

Ariko, impuguke mu buhanga bwo kubara zivuga ko igipimo cy’ingenzi mu kumenya abicwa n’iki cyorezo – igipimo cyo kureba impfu z’inyongera (excess deaths) – kidashoboka muri byinshi mu bihugu by’Afurika kubera ko nta buryo bwa CRVS buhari.

Kubara abishwe na Covid-19

Impfu z’inyongera ni igipimo kigereranya umubare w’ukuri w’abapfuye mu gihe runaka n’umubare w’impfu zitezwe kubaho hashingiwe k’uko byagenze muri icyo gihe mu myaka yashize. Ariko iki gipimo gishingira ku makuru yose y’impfu zanditswe (zabaruwe).

Gusuzuma izo mpfu z’inyongera bitanga ishusho y’uko kubura ubuzima bitewe gusa na Covid-19 bihagaze muri rusange.

Binagaragaza impfu zatewe n’iki cyorezo mu buryo buziguye kubera ibirimo nko kuba inzego z’ubuvuzi zararengewe ubushobozi ntizite mu buryo bukwiye ku barwayi b’izindi ndwara, abapfuye kubera kugira ubwoba bwo kujya kwivuza n’abazize ikibazo cy’ubukungu bwashegeshwe n’iki cyorezo.

Ubushakashatsi bwasohotse mu kinyamakuru cy’ubushakashatsi mu buvuzi, The Lancet, bwakorewe ku bihugu 118 by’amikoro macye n’iby’amikoro ari hagati na hagati, butanga ishusho iteye inkeke.

Bugereranya ko ikomwa mu nkokora ry’inzego z’ubuvuzi ryatewe na Covid-19 rishobora gutuma habaho impfu z’inyongera z’abana 1,157,000 n’impfu z’inyongera z’ababyeyi b’abagore 56,700.

Afurika y’epfo na Misiri biri mu bihugu umunani byo muri Afurika bifite uburyo bukora bwo kwandika abapfuye, rero kubara impfu z’inyongera muri ibyo bihugu byombi birashoboka, ndetse n’imibare ubwayo irivugira.

Mu ntangiriro y’ukwezi kwa kabiri, Afurika y’epfo yabaruye hafi impfu 138,000 z’inyongera kuva iki cyorezo cyatangira – ibyo ni hafi inshuro eshatu z’umubare wa leta w’abishwe na Covid-19.

Uwo mubare w’impfu z’inyongera ugizwe n’abantu 46,200 muri bo banditswe na leta ko bishwe na coronavirus, ndetse hari ibyemezo by’icyo bazize.

Ibi bivuze ko abandi bantu 91,500 muri abo bagize uwo mubare wose bishoboka ko batapimwe icyabishe, cyangwa bapfuye bivuye ku ngaruka iziguye y’iki cyorezo, nko gutinda k’ubuvuzi bari basanzwe bahabwa ku barwaye kanseri cyangwa kubera kugira ubwoba bwo kujya kwa muganga.

Ubwo icyorezo cyari gikaze cyane mu mpera y’ukwezi kwa karindwi mu 2020, Afurika y’epfo yagize ikigero cy’inyongera ingana na 54% y’impfu zari zitezwe mu gihe nk’icyo.

Nubwo ubwo gahunda ya ‘guma mu rugo’ yashyirwagaho bwa mbere muri icyo gihugu, habaruwe impfu nke ugereranyije n’uko byari bisanzwe. Birashoboka ko ibi byatewe n’igabanuka ry’urugomo rufitanye isano no kunywa inzoga ndetse n’impanuka zo mu muhanda.

Mu Burundi bihagaze gute?

Kubera ko Misiri ifite uburyo bwimbitse bwo kubarura abapfuye, birashoboka kubara ko habayeho impfu z’inyongera z’abantu barenga 68,000 hagati y’ukwezi kwa gatanu n’ukwezi kwa munani mu mwaka wa 2020.

Mu kwezi kwa gatandatu, umubare w’impfu zabaruwe wari uri hafi gukuba inshuro ebyiri umubare ubusanzwe uba witezwe muri icyo gihe.

Muri rusange, kuri iyo nyongera y’impfu, izemejwe ko zatewe na Covid-19 zari ziri ku kigero kiri munsi ya 10%.

Ariko muri byinshi mu bihugu byo muri Afurika, nta buryo wagera ku mwanzuro nk’uwo wo kumenya aho impfu zavuye nyirizina, kubera ko amakuru ahari ari macye cyane.

Mu bihugu 14, muri buri bantu 10 bapfuye umuntu umwe gusa ni we wabaruwe. Aha harimo nko muri Nigeria, Repubulika ya Demokarasi ya Kongo na Cameroun.

Ibihugu birenga gato kimwe cya kabiri cy’ibiri muri Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara biba bifite gusa amakuru yanditse n’intoki mu bitabo/amakayi ajyanye n’abapfuye.

Leta zimwe, nk’u Burundi na Eritrea, nta mategeko n’amwe zifite ategeka kwandika abapfuye cyangwa gukusanya amakuru y’abapfuye.

Eritrea imaze gutangaza abantu barindwi gusa bishwe na Covid-19 naho u Burundi bwo bwatangaje batatu gusa yishe.

Mu 2017, Nigeria – igihugu cya mbere gituwe cyane muri Afurika – yabaruye 10% gusa by’abapfuye bose muri uwo mwaka.

Iki cyorezo cyarushijeho “kuzahaza ibikorwa byose bya leta byo kubarura” byo muri icyo gihugu, byafatwaga nkaho bitari ingenzi, nkuko raporo ya ONU yo mu kwezi kwa kane mu 2020 ibivuga.

Ibi bishobora gusobanura impamvu umubare w’impfu zitewe na Covid-19 ku bantu miliyoni imwe muri rusange ukiri hasi muri Nigeria.

Nigeria yabaruye abapfuye 9 bishwe na Covid-19 ku baturage miliyoni imwe, ugereranyije n’umubare rusange ku isi w’abicwa na Covid-19 mu baturage miliyoni imwe ungana n’abantu 316.

Hagati aho, Afurika y’epfo yabaruye abantu 827 bishwe na Covid-19 kuri miliyoni imwe, naho Tunisia ibarura abantu 659. Ibi ni byo bihugu bibiri bya mbere bifite benshi cyane muri Afurika muri uru rwego.

Ariko, ni ingenzi kuzirikana ko ibi bihugu bifite uburyo bwiza bwo kubarura hafi impfu zose. Afurika y’epfo izibarura ku kigero cya 92% cy’abaturage bose, naho Tunisia ikazibarura ku kigero cya 95%.

Hari gukorwa iki?

Ubushakashatsi bwa BBC na UNECA bwatanze isesengura rya mbere rikubiyemo amakuru ya vuba aha cyane ajyanye n’uburyo bwo kubarura abapfuye ku mugabane w’Afurika.

Bwanavumbuye ko ibihugu byinshi birimo gutera intambwe mu gucyemura icyuho cy’amakuru ajyanye no kubarura abapfuye.

U Rwanda ruragerageza kuziba icyuho

U Rwanda na Senegal byombi birimo gukorana n’umuryango Vital Strategies udaharanira inyungu wo muri Amerika, mu kwegeranya amakuru y’impfu za kera ashobora kugereranywa n’impfu zo muri iki gihe cy’icyorezo cya Covid-19 – hifashishwa uburyo buzwi nka “rapid mortality surveillance”.

Ibihugu bitanu Togo, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia na Ghana – birimo gukorana n’ikigo African Field Epidemiology Network nabyo ngo bikore nk’ibyo.

‘Gusuzuma mu magambo icyateye urupfu’

Tchad na Liberia birimo gusaba abajyanama b’ubuzima kumenyesha abategetsi ibijyanye n’impfu zibera hanze y’ibitaro.

Bakoresha uburyo bwo “gusuzuma mu magambo icyateye urupfu”, aho babaza uwa hafi mu muryango w’uwapfuye amakuru ajyanye n’uwo muntu wapfuye.

Ni igisubizo kidahenze gifasha gusobanukirwa iby’ingenzi bitera impfu mu karere runaka.

Ibihugu bimwe binakoresha ikoranabuhanga rya telefone zigendanwa mu gukusanya no kubika amakuru y’abapfuye.

Mu Rwanda no muri Mozambique, abantu bashobora gukoresha telefone zigezweho (smartphones) mu kwandikisha abapfuye babandikisha mu buryo (system) bw’ikoranabuhanga.

Bituma abo mu muryango w’uwapfuye bamwandikisha kandi bitabaye ngombwa ko habaho kwegerana, mu rwego rwo kwirinda ikwirakwira ry’ubwandu bwa Covid-19.

Muri Uganda, ikigo cya leta cyo kwiyandikisha cyashyizeho uburyo buzwi nka “Mobile Vital Records System” bwo kubaruza abana bavutse n’abapfuye bikorewe ku bigo nderabuzima no ku rwego rw’aho abantu batuye.

Mu myaka 10 iri imbere, abahanga mu bumenyi bwo kubara (data scientists) bizeye ko ubu buryo bwo guhanga udushya buzafasha ibindi bihugu kugera ku ntego zabyo zo kubarura abapfuye bose.

SRC:BBC

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