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Utuntu n'utundi

Menya impamvu ibitotsi by’amasegonda 15 bishobora kuguteza akaga

Ni udutotsi tugufi cyane kurusha kwirambika, utu dutotsi abahanga bita ‘microsleeps’ dushobora kumara amasegonda macye. Dushobora kuba ikimenyetso cyimbitse cyo kudasinzira neza.

Ntabwo ari kwakundi wegeka umutwe ngo usinzireho nk’iminota itanu cyangwa 10. Hoya, mu isi ya microsleeps ibyo bifatwa nk’ibitotsi birebire. Hano utu dutotsi duto tubarirwa mu masegonda.

Inyigo nyinshi z’abahanga zasuzumye bene ibi bitotsi bihera ku isegonda rimwe kugeza kuri 15. Ubu ibisobanuro by’utu dutotsi n’icyo bikora ku buzima bwacu birimo kwiyongera, kuva ku kutwambura ubushake bw’ibyo turimo kugera ku kudushyira mu byago runaka, nk’igihe utwaye imodoka. Ariko kandi turimo no kwegera gusobanukirwa impamvu bene utu dutotsi twiba abantu.

Ubushakashatsi bwa vuba bwerekanye ko inzobere nyazo kuri utu dutotsi ari inyamaswa ziba ku mwaro w’inyanja bita chinstrap penguins. Mu gihe ngenzi zazo ziba ziri mu nyanja guhiga amafunguro, izasigaye mu cyari zirundira hamwe zigomba kuba maso ngo zirinde amagi inyoni zimwe nazo ziyafata nk’ibiryo byazo.

Center cy’i Lyon mu Bufaransa, yabaze imikorere y’ubwonko n’uburyo ziriya penguins 14 zisinzira ku kirwa cya King George mu nyanja ya Antarctica.

Mu gihe cy’iminsi 10, izi penguins ntizigeze zisinzira amasegonda arenze 34 icya rimwe. Ahubwo zagize ‘microsleeps’ zirenga 10,000 zimara munsi y’amasegonda ane, rimwe na rimwe zigasinzira igice kimwe cy’ubwonko.

Amasegonda ane ashobora kumvikana nk’aho ari macye cyane, ariko uyateranyije yose hamwe usanga buri penguin yarasinziriye amasaha 11 kuri 24 y’umunsi.

Bisa n’aho kuri izi nyamaswa bikora neza, ariko ku muntu w’iki gihe, udutotsi duto ntabwo tumufasha. Hari ibihe by’ubuzima n’urupfu bidusaba kuba maso, nk’igihe utwaye imodoka ku muvuduko cyangwa uri mu kindi gikorwa gisaba kutagoheka na busa.

Ibihe nk’ibyo nibyo abahanga bakozeho ubushakashatsi muri laboratoire ngo basuzume ubwoko bw’udutotsi duto mu bantu.

Mu 2014, inyigo ya mbere ku dutotsi duto yakoresheje ibyuma bireba (scanners) ku bwonko, gufata video z’amaso y’abantu hamwe n’igikoresho cya electroencephalogram (EEG) gisuzuma imikorere y’ubwonko. Abakoreweho ubushakashatsi, baryamye muri scanner, barebaga kuri ‘screen’ bagomba no gukomeza gukoresha disk iboneka kuri iyo screen bakoresheje akuma k’inziramugozi (joystick).

Byari ibintu biteye ubunebwe ku buryo benshi bagowe no gukomeza kuba maso – 70% byabo nibura bibwe n’udutotsi inshuro 36 muri icyo gikorwa cy’iminota 50. Aba bahanga, babikoreraga muri New Zealand, bari biteze bene utu dutotsi ariko nanone tutangana gutyo.

Yego abakoreweho ubushakashatsi nibwo bari bakimara kurya ibya saa sita kandi bari baryamye, ariko ntabwo bari basabwe gusinzira kandi buri muntu wese winjiye muri scanner ya magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) azi ko haba hari urusaku ruvuga cyane. Ntabwo hari ahantu ho guhondoberera.

Uko tunaniwe niko dushobora kwibwa n’udutotsi

Mu buryo budatunguranye, udutotsi duto turasanzwe cyane ku bantu bagira indwara izwi nka narcolepsy, ituma abantu bibasirwa n’ibitotsi ku manywa. Ariko ubushakashatsi buvuga ko benshi muri twe n’ubundi udutotsi duto tutwibasira.

Abandi bashakashatsi kuri University of Canterbury muri New Zealand, bahaye abantu ‘volant/ steering wheel’ itari ukuri n’imodoka yo gukurikira, bitegereza uburyo bagenda barambirwa kandi bacika intege, maze bagaragaza n’izindi ngero waba uzi nko kugorwa no kuba maso mu isomo riri gutangirwa mu cyumba gishyushye, aho umuntu asinzira by’akanya kanzunya, umutwe ukagwa maze agashuguka akongera akaba maso, bityo bityo.

Uko tunaniwe, niko dushobora cyane kwibwa n’udutotsi. Yvonne Harrison, umushakashatsi ku bitotsi muri University of Loughborough mu Bwongereza, yasanze bene utu dutotsi tuboneka cyane nyuma ya saa sita na nimugoroba, kandi kenshi tukabanziriza gusinzira neza birebire.

David Dinges, profeseri ku ndwara zo mu mutwe muri University of Pennsylvania, yagumije abantu bari maso ijoro ryose ngo aze kureba inshuro bari buhondobere ku munsi ukurikiyeho.

Nk’uko wabyitega, inshuro bagiye bibasirwa n’udutotsi duto zari nyinshi. Ariko ikintu giteye amakenga ni uko yaje kuvumbura ko iyo abantu baryamye bagasinzira amasaha atandatu nijoro mu minsi 14 bikurikiranya, nabo bagira twa ‘microsleeps’ tungana n’utw’umuntu utasinziriye ijoro ryose.

Gusa ikibatandukanya ni uko babandi basinziriye amasaha atandatu nijoro batigeze bamenya ko bananiwe. Bikomerezaga ubuzima bwabo.

Hari n’igihe tutamenya ko twibwe n’agatotsi. Mu nyigo imwe, abantu batumiwe ku bushake ngo baze gufata uturuhuko duto two kwirambika (naps) nimunsi muri laboratoire maze umushakashatsi akababyutsa nyuma y’umunota umwe, iminota itanu, 10, cyangwa 20 maze akababaza niba bari basinziriye cyangwa bari maso.

Igihe babaga bemerewe gusinzira amasegonda 60 gusa, 15% gusa byabo nibo basanze bari basinziriye. Yewe no ku gusinzira iminota 10, kimwe cya kabiri gusa nibo bavuze ko bari basinziriyeho.

Ibi bishobora kumvikana nka cya gihe umuntu aguhakanira rwose ko yari ahondobereye imbere ya TV, nubwo wowe waba wabibonye neza ko agatotsi kari kamwibye.

Amasegonda abiri arahagije ngo imodoka ite umuhanda

Ririya tsinda ry’abashakashatsi rivuga ko kariya kazi kiyongera ku bwonko gashobora kuba ari igisubizo cyabwo mu kugerageza kuba maso ntibusinzire. Bene biriya ntibiboneka mu kwirambika cyangwa gusinzira birebire, bivuze ko udutotsi duto dutandukanye n’ibitotsi bito, atari no kuba ari na tugufi gusa.

Mu gihe udatwaye imodoka bene ibi bitotsi ntabwo wabyitaho cyane, ushobora nko guhomba amasegonda macye ya filimi, bicye mu byo mwalimu avuze, cyangwa byakabya bikagutera ikimwaro igihe ufashwe uhondobereye umuntu arimo akuvugisha.

Ikibazo kibaho mu bihe bya none, aho nko ku modoka yihuta, amasegonda abiri ahagije ngo imodoka cyangwa ikamyo ibe ivuye mu nzira yayo, ibintu byumvikana ko bishobora no kwica.

Rero uko byamera kwose, ntidukwiye kwibwa n’udutotsi igihe dutwaye. Ubushakashatsi buheruka gukorerwa muri kompanyi y’amakamyo mu Buyapani, ikoresha abashoferi hafi 15,000 butanga isomo. Abahanga basesenguye amashusho yo mu ikamyo z’abashoferi b’umwuga 52 bakoze impanuka kubera gusinzira.

Video zerekanye ko 3/4 byabo bagaragaje kwibwa n’udutotsi mbere yo kugonga. Ku mushoferi umwe impanuka yagenze itya:

Umunota umwe mbere y’impanuka yatangiye guhumbaguza amaso, amasegonda 38 mbere yo kugonga umubiri we ntiwanyeganyegaga, hakurikiye guhumbya buhoro buhoro maze amasegonda ane mbere y’impanuka amaso ye yasinziriye amasegonda abiri gusa. Yafungutse isegonda rimwe mbere y’impanuka, gusa ntibyari bigishobotse ko hari icyo yakora, ikamyo yari yarenze umuhanda.

Muri izo video abashakashatsi babonye uburyo bwo kumenya ko impanuka ishobora kuba igiye kuba, bushobora gukoreshwa mu kuburira abashoferi.

Microsleep: What it is and How to Prevent it | Sleep.com

Igihe bumva bananiwe abashoferi bagerageza gukomeza kuba maso bikora mu maso cyangwa ku mubiri (ntibavuga uko babigenza, ariko ntekereza ko ari nko kwikubita mu maso mu kugerageza kwikangura). Bashobora kwinanura cyangwa kwayura mbere y’uko udutotsi tubiba.

Abashakashatsi bagiye inama ko uburyo bwose bwa ‘automatique’ bwerekana ko umushoferi agiye gusinzira butagomba kugarukira gusa ku gihe atangiye gufunga amaso, ahubwo bugomba no kureba uko anyeganyeza umubiri we.

Hagati aho, nk’abatwara imodoka, bagomba kumenya ko atari buri gihe umuntu amenya ko arimo gusinzira cyane cyane bene utu dutotsi twiba abantu. Ni ukumenya ko igihe tunaniwe, kugerageza kwikomeza no kuba maso gusa bidahagije.

Imbaraga z’ubushake mu gukora ikintu ntabwo zihagije kunesha microsleep, nko ku rugendo rurerure utwaye, ni byiza kubaha inama yo guhagarara ahantu hatekanye ukaruhuka mu gihe wumva unaniwe, kunywa ikawa, cyangwa kwirambika gato, ukaruhuka mbere yo gukomeza.

Bitandukanye na chinstrap penguins, ku bantu udutotsi duto ntabwo dusimbura gusinzira bya nyabyo biba bikenewe. Mu gihe tukwiba kenshi, byaba bivuze ko utabona ibitotsi bihagije. Gusa mu gihe tudatwaye imodoka cyangwa turimo gukora ikintu runaka kidusaba kuba maso cyane, umenya tudakwiye kugira impungenge zo guhondobera amasegonda macye bya hato na hato.

@BBC

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